Carl Ludwig Blume - Autoren & Biography | Botanic Institute Bioherby

Name: Carl Ludwig Blume.

Geboren: 9 Juni 1796.

 

Geburtsort: Brunswijk.

Gestorben: 3 Februar 1862, Leiden.

Carl Ludwig Blume - Biography

Carl Ludwig Blume, born on 9 June 1796, Brunswijk, † 3 February 1862, Leiden, Netherlands.

One of worlds greatest Botanical researches with an extraordinary list of work.

 

 

Carl Ludwig Blume, Karl Ludwig Blume, Karel Ludwig Bloem and often called 'Bloem.' 

Bloem means Flower in Dutch what is ofcourse a direkt referral to CJ Blume himself, later many species, work and lectures are called 'Blume' as a reminder of one of worlds greatest botanicus.**3   

 

Karel Ludwig studied at the University of Leiden and in his study period he was encouraged by teacher Sebal Justinus Brugmans (1763-1819) to go on Adventure in Dutch Indies, where at that time the Dutch established Batavia.*4

Karel Ludwig Blume was only 22 years old, but obviously highly esteemed for his ambition of knowledge. Full of energy and excited for his next adventure in life, he left in 1818 for the Dutch Indies. Blume arrived on Batavia, now known as Java, on 11 January 1819.

 

Blume residence is perfect: His older colleague Reinward is Director of the Botanical Gardens  Buitenzorg and Reinward has a huge house next to the Botanical Gardens Buitenzorg, Batavia. 

Blume was intrigued and blown-away by the beauty of the local Natural surroundings and started collecting and researching Botanica right away, so many plants to index so many plants to describe; he loved his work !

In June 1922 Reinwardt named Blume Director of the Botanical Gardens Buitenzorg, he was bored and wanted to travel. Blume was happy, this was the perfect job for him.

Besides enriching the Botanical Gardens Buitenzorg with plants he collected during his own travels, he had good connections to other Herbariums and Botanical Gardens, all over the world, with the purpose of exchanging rare and exclusive species, he was famous for bringing presents: Gifts as exotic seeds and seedlings; He wanted to collected the most illusive species, ones that are rare even for Kings, Queens and Emperors.

For the Buitenzorg garden he eagerly wanted to have more Chinese and Japanese species of the illusive Orchids. To obtain more rare species he wrote numerous letters to Dutch consuls in Canton and the Dutch Royal representatives in Deshima, Japan. A year later, in 1824, he instructed the Dutch in Japan how to safely pack and conserve, species of seeds, seedlings and plants and ship them in good condition to Batavia.


Blume shipped numerous of Javanese, Malaysian and other South East Asian exotic plants in small baskets to the Botanic Garden of the University Leiden, Utrecht and Amsterdams "Hortus Botanicus'. Blume build a Botanical Network: He traded with many Universities and Botanical Gardens around the World; His creative output is imposing; Eight new species of families: Apostasiaceae (now a subfamily among Orchidaceae), Burmanniaceae, Dipterocarpacaeae, Cardiopteridaceae, Hernandiaceae, Myricaceae, Sabiaceae, and Schisandraceaeand. Blume acquired the greatest collection of Orchidaceae, and made international fame by shipping many exotic Seedlings and Seeds to the 'Society de Flore' at Brussels, that where sold for extraordinary prices to the High society in Paris, London, Madrid and New York.

 

 

In 1823 Blume published the first Botanical Catalogi: 's-Lands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg, Batavia. In the 'Reinwardt' Catalogi by K.L. Blume, there were many manuscript found signed with Blume's name as well signed with the name of former Director Reinwardt, this is due to the fact that former director Reinwardt had acquired many species over the years he was Director, but never got to index them Catalogi. Master of Botanics Karel Ludwig Bloem documented, described and indexed the whole 'Reinwart' collection and published 'the Reinwardt' Catalogi, he did in a few months what Reinwardt couldn't accomplish in a few year. Bloem himself added several new Genera under his own name with valid descriptions, the Master of Botanics was born and couldn't wait to publish his first 'own' Catalogi and bundle of Catalogi in a real book..

In the seven years between 1819 and 1826, Blume travelled widely into West and Central Java, as far east as Rembang, often accompanied by assistants, draughtsmen and interested persons, collecting plants and also animals; gathering information on all of Natures aspects, including the medicinal value of certain plants and flowers; he loved the scientific adventure of exploration.

Until 1827 he eagerly collected, documented and Indexed Botanical Specimen, samples, materials and other relevant items. He collected more than 3000 different specimens and samples, over 700 Genera and over Approx. 2400 species, belonging to 170 families of plants. Present time, almost 200 years later, Blume Herbarium Specimens and Plant Samples are still in excellent Shape and Condition. 

The writing of the manuscript 'Flora of Dutch-Indies, Contributions of' was a tremendous task, not to mention the research done and knowledge he had to acquire. The documented and Indexed Genera, the Plant and Flower Species, the Plant Families: All being completely new to science; This astounding achievement, is known as “The 3000 Adventures of Bloem - Scientific Exploration of Botanical Greatness”, named after the huge amount of different Species, Genera and Families he described, documented and indexed.

Gynostemma Blume, The Forgotten Plant Name.

With so much newly discovered Botanic, it is no wonder, that a significant percentage of his newly discovered plants and flowers where not indexed in the IPNI*7.  With over 3000 New Species this would have been a life time job ! Since there where no computers, one had to write a Manuscript for every single specimen of Botanic: Every one single plant species had to be fully descriped: Plant anatomy, location where the specimen was found, hight, soil, etc, also one was expected to Draw the specimen in Flowering state, to scale; Drawings from Herbarium Specimens: One Manuscript can take up to a few days to a week; You can see the problem: When you as fanatical Botanicus find an non-index-species, yeah! you will be thrilled to mark, describe, document, draw and index all new and unknown features, but if one has over 3000 new species to mark, describe, document, draw and index.. 

 

Therefor a significant number of collected species where not indexed in IPNI. At least not officially, and the result is that other Botanic Researches, who did apply to IPNI, maybe even with the Data from Blume's Catalogi / Manuscripts, where able to claim the Species that where discovered, described AND indexed by Blume, The Manuscript and Sample of collected Species of the Island of Java confirm this. 

It is obvious when looking to the Characteristics of the leafs in the Sample Species it is the Genus: Blume in 1925: Gynostemma Predata,   much later (+37 year) Makino named the exact same species : 'Gynostemma Pentaphyllum'. (1902.)

Karel Ludwig Bloem , Carl Ludwig wrote numerous Manuscripts and Books:

 

Great specimen had to be Manuscript Submission and designated. For example:

 

The fact is that Gynostemma was delineated and indexed by CJ Blume in 1825 in his work “Flora of Dutch Indie, Contributions of’ with 2 sub-species : Gynostemma Simplicifolium and Gynostemma Pedata, whereas sub-species Gynostemma Pedata is not validated and in 1902  index as Gynostemma Pentaphyllum (Makino, Japan), however, my research on this subject is that Gynostemma Pedata was described, delineated and indexed, also organic Specimen are collected and present by Blume in  the seven years between 1819 and 1826 on the island of Java, formerly know as Batavia.
 



Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunberg) Makino, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo). 16: 179. 1902.

绞股蓝 jiao gu lan

Stem and branches slender, angular-sulcate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Leaves pedately 3-9-foliolate, usually 5-7-foliolate, membranous or papery, pubescent or glabrous; leaflets ovate-oblong or lanceolate, median leaflets 3-12 × 1.5-4 cm, lateral leaflets smaller, both surfaces sometimes hispid, lateral veins 6-8 pairs, base attenuate, margin crenate, apex acute or shortly acuminate; petiolule 1-5 mm. Tendrils filiform, 2-fid. Male flowers in panicle; peduncle filiform, 10-15(-30) cm, many branched; pedicels filiform, 1-4 mm; bracteole subulate; calyx tube very short; segments triangular, ca. 0.7 mm, apex acute; corolla pale green or white; segments ovate-lanceolate, 2.5-3 × ca. 1 cm, 1-veined, apex long acuminate. Female flowers: panicle shorter than that of male flowers; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; ovary globose, 2- or 3-loculed; styles 3; stigmas 2-lobed; staminodes 5, short. Fruit indehiscent, black when mature, globose, 5-6 mm in diam., 2-seeded, glabrous or densely hispid and pubescent. Seeds brown, ovate-cordate, ca. 4 mm in diam., compressed, both surfaces papillose, base cordate, apex obtuse. Fl. Mar-Nov, fr. Apr-Dec.

Forests, thickets or roadsides on mountain slopes; 300-3200 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, S Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, S Japan, S Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].

 

 

Gynostemma Blume, Bijdr. 23. 1825.

绞股蓝属 jiao gu lan shu

Authors: Shukun Chen & Charles Jeffrey

Enkylia Griffith; Pestalozzia Zollinger & Moritzi; Trirostellum Z. P. Wang & Q. Z. Xie.

Herbs, perennial, scandent, glabrous or pubescent. Leaves alternate, pedate, with 3-9 leaflets, rarely simple; leaflet blade ovate-lanceolate. Tendrils bifurcate, rarely simple. Plants dioecious, rarely monoecious. Flowers unisexual, in racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal; pedicel articulate; bracteole basal. Male flower: calyx tube short, 5-lobed; segments narrowly lanceolate; corolla greenish or white, rotate, deeply 5-lobed; segments lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, involute in bud; stamens 5, inserted at base of perianth tube; filaments short, connate; anthers erect, ovoid, 2-celled, dehiscence longitudinal; connective narrow, but not extended; pollen grains globose or elliptic, longitudinally striate or smooth, dehiscent by pores; rudimentary pistil absent. Female flowers: calyx and corolla as in male flower; staminodes present; ovary globose, 2-5-locular; styles 3, rarely 2, 4, or 5, free; stigmas 2 or 1 and crescent-shaped and irregularly incised-dentate; ovules 2, pendulous in each locule. Berry globose, in form and size like a pea, or capsule, 3-lobed from top, top umbonulate or with 3 persistent long styles. Seeds 2 or 3, broadly ovate, compressed, with papillae or spiniform papillae.

About 17 species: tropical Asia to E Asia, from the Himalaya to Japan, Malaysia, and New Guinea; 14 species (nine endemic) in China.

 

 

This achievement is colossal and later known as “The 3000 Adventures of Scientific Exploration and Greatness by Blume.”

Love Life:

When Blume arrived in Batavia, he lived in Buitenzorg, where he fell in love with Johanna Waardenburg by whom he had 7 childrenBlume divorced in April 1830 in Brussels, Belgium and he remarried at the end of the same month with the wealthy Wilhelmina Nicolasina Cranssen.
 

Blume was happy was appointed as Advisor of the Royal Botanic Court and received Medallions of Honor from the Dutch Royal Family for his outstanding work: 

* Knight in the Order of the Lion of the Netherlands

* Knight in de Order of Oranje-Nassau.

He became Professor of Nature and History at the Leiden University and was named Director of the Royal Botanic Herbarium of Brussels, Belgium by his friend and colleague Philipp Franz von Siebold. In the year 1829, just before the Belgian Revolution in 1830 started,  Philipp Franz von Siebold and Karel Ludwig Blume, managed to evacuate the unique royal Herbarium collections of the Royal Herbarium, from Brussels Belgium to Leiden in Netherlands.

All Right Reserved, 2019, Bioherby  COPYRIGHT _ Botanic Research Bioherby _ 2019

 


 

Appendix A - Blume’s publications

 

1817 - Dissertatio inauguralis medica, de Arsenico et Ratione qua in Animaliaagit. Leiden. 49 pp.

With verses by D.J. VEEGENS, a friend, and Prof. S.J. BRUGMANS.

 

1821 -Minerale wateren van Tjipannas en Tjiradjas. Bataviaasche Courant, 15 Sept.

 

1821. Repr. in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 1/2, 1845: 162-166.

Contains a chemical analysis, obviously made by BLUME himself, of the mineral contents of these waters.

 

1822 -Gedachten op eene reize door het Zuid-Oostelijk gedeelte der Residentie Bantam. Bataviaasche Courant, 16 Febr. to 30 Nov.

 

1822. Repr. in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, nos 3/4, 1845: 1-36.

Report of trip, describing the history, anthropology, ethnographyand politics of the Badui people in SW. Java. No botany involved.

 

1822 - Beschrijving van de heiligegraven der Badoeis in hetZuid-Oostelijk gedeelteder Residentie Bantam.

This appeared as the chapter 'Mengelingen' in the Bataviaasche Courant, nos 7, 8, 10, 13, 27-29, and 32, 16 Febr. to 30 Nov.

 

1822. Repr. in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, nos 3/4, 1845: 1-36.

An ethnographical description of the Badui people in SW. Java, their sacred graves, etc. In the library of the Institute Taal-, Land- & Volkenkunde,Leiden University, there is a 85 pp. manuscript (H 75) with the title 'Gedachten op eene reize, in de maanden December en Januarijl., in het zuidoostelijke gedeelte der ResidentieBantam gedaan. Getrokken uit de Javaansche Couranten van 1822,' which is probably copied literatim.

 

1823 - Catalogus van eenige der merkwaardigstezoo in- als uitheemschegewassen, te vinden in 's-Lands Plantentuinte Buitenzorg. Batavia. 112 pp., 1 pi. Several new genera and species. Many nomina nuda under REINWARDT'S name. Repr. in Arnold Arboretum

 

1946. 1823 - Beschrijving van eenige gewassen, waargenomen op eenen togt naar den Salak in den jaare 1822. Verhand. Batav. Genootschap van K. & W. 9: 129-202. Mostly descriptions of plants (Magnoliaceae, Loranthaceae,Dipterocarpus, Cedrela,Piper, etc.).

 

1823 - Letter to NEES VON ESENBECK. Flora 6: 713-716. Report on a planned trip in Java.

 

1823 - Bijdrage tot de kennis onzer Javaansche eiken. Verhand. Batav. Genootschap van K. & W. 9: 203-223, 6 pi. Account of Quercus in Java (inch also Lithocarpus).

 

1823 - (with C.G. NEES VON ESENBECK) Pugillus plantarum Javanicarum, e Cryptogamicarum variis ordinibus selectus. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 11 (1): 117-138, pi. 12 & 13. Descriptions ofPteridophytes, the new species under dual authorship 'NEES & BL.'. Dedication 23 1824 - Letter to NEES VON ESENBECK: Ueber die Vegetation desBerges Gedeeauf der lnsel Java. Flora 7: 289-295. Extract from a larger paper in Dutch, see below (1825). Sketches on the exploration of Mt Gedeh made together with the hortulanus KENT. BLUME did not ascend Mt Pangrango. 1824 - Epidemie onder de buffets. Bataviaasche Courant, 10 Jan.

 

1824: 'Verslag van den kommissaris van den burgerlijk geneeskundigenDienst in Nederlandsch Indie C.L. Blume.' See also: Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4, 1845: 91-94. Epidemic disease among the buffaloes.

 

1825 -Letter to the Governor-General, dated 8 Dec. 1824, published in the Bataviaasche Courant, 12 Jan.

 

1825. Report on BLUME'S discovery of Rafflesia in Nusa Kambangan I. (S. Java), the first discovery of the genus in Java. He did not name it here. 1825 - Bestijging van den berg Tjerimai, gewoonlijk genoemd Tjerme, in deResidentie Cheribon. Bataviaasche Courant, 2 Febr. 1825. Repr. in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4, 1845: 102-116. Report of a trip from Krawang eastwards to Panarukan, Linggadjati, culminating in the ascent of Mt Tjeremai, with many botanical data on plants encountered.

 

1825 -Over de gesteldheid van het gebergte Gedeh. Verhand. Batav. Genootschap van K. & W. 10: 55-104. Lively topographical and botanical description of an ascent of Mt Gedeh from Bogor via Puntjak, along Megamendung, Tjibeureum and Kandangbadak through the crater and along the Alun-Alun to the summit. BLUME did not ascend Mt Pangrango, and thus missed Primula imperialis.

 

1825 - Inlandsche middelen tegen diarrheen. Bataviaasche Courant, 23 Febr.

 

1825. Native recipes against diarrhoea. See also: Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4, 1845: 116.

 

1825 - Tabellen en Platen voor de Javaansche Orchideen. Batavia. 5 tab., 16 pi. Folio. Famous exposition ofa system of the Javanese orchids and their affinities; 73 spp. depicted in detail. Issued with the Bijdragen (1825-1827) part 6. 1825 - (with C.G. NEES VON ESENBECK & C.G.C. REINWARDT) Hepaticae Javanicae editae conjunctis studiis et opera. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 12: 181-238, 409-417. Account of hepatics in Java.

 

1825 - lets over de planten onder den naam van Patma, bij de Hindostaners en de Javanen bekend. Bataviaasche Courant, 9 March 1825. Repr. in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4, 1845: 179-183. A note on plants known under the vernacular name 'patma' ( =Rafflesia). Flora Malesiana 24 1825 - Korte beschrijving van de Patma der Javanen. Bataviaasche Courant, 23 March

 

1825 (22 pp., in L). Repr. in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4, 1845: 183-194. Short description of the 'patma' ( = Rafflesia) of the Javanese. 1825 - Die Patma-Pflanze der Indier und Javanesen und Beschreibung einer neu entdeckten Blume auf der Insel Noesa Kambangan, die an Grosse alle bis dahin bekannt gewesenen ubertrifft. Liter. Wochenbl. der Borsenhalle, Hamburg, no 29: 454-462. Repr. in L. As the preceding.

 

1825 - Beitrage zur Kenntnis von Bantam, dem westlichsten Bezirk auf Java. Hertha II: 227-257. Not seen.Probably similar to entries in 1822. 1825 - Letter toTH.F.L. NEES VON ESENBECK: Reise von Batavia nach Krawang in derPreanger Regentschaft. Flora 8 (2): 577-585. Report of journey from Batavia to Krawang.

 

1825 - Etwas iiberdieRhizantheae, eine neue Pflanzenfamilie, und die GattungRafflesia insbesondere. Flora 8 (2): 609-624. 1825 -Letter to TH.F.L. NEES VON ESENBECK: UeberPflanzen der Gegend von Batavia. Flora 8 (2): 676-680. Flora of the vicinity of Batavia.

 

1825 - Letter to the Governor-General, dated 20 Nov., on the flowering of a new species of a new genus of Araceae with a very large inflorescence, obviously Amorphophallus campanulatus, in the Botanic Garden, with reference to Tacca phallifera RUMPH. Bataviaasche Courant, 23 Nov.

 

1825. 1825-1827 - Bijdragen tot de Flora vanNederlandsch Indie. 17 fascicles, 1169 pp. For publication dates, see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 236. In all 107 families are treated, inwhich 700 genera and over 2300 species were incorporated. There are many new genera and very many new species, all described in concise Latin. In the first 5 fascicles each family has also a paragraph with notes on its useful plants. On p. 265 BLUME mentioned that his plan was to treat the orchids together with VAN HASSELT; 27 species out of the 296 were jointly described. Through VAN HASSELT'S early death this joint venture was frustrated. There is a typed Index to the names in L. Data on useful plants mentionedin fascicle 1 were copied inAlg. Konst- en Letterbode 1826- 1: 26-29, 37-41.

 

1826 - Monographie der Oost-Indische pepersoorten. Verhand. Batav. Genootschap van K. & W. 11: 139-245, 6 pi., 41 fig. Monographyof Netherlands-Indianspecies of Piper.

 

1826 -De Tacca Culat van Rumphius wedergevonden. Mededeeling van de waarnemingen van C.L.Blume. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1826-1: 333-334.

1826 — Letter to NEES VON ESENBECK: Bruchstiicke einer Reise auf derInsel Java. Flora 9 (2): 417-426, 433-441. Report on a trip in NW. Java, including also an ascent of Mt Tjeremai.

 

1827 - (with TH.F.L. NEES VON ESENBECK)Fungi Javanici. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 13 (1): 9-22, pi. 2-7. 1827 — Over een nieuw plantengeslacht, de Brugmansia, uit de natuurlijke familie der Rhizantheae. In: H.C. VAN HALL (ed.), Bijdragen tot de Natuurkundige Wetenschappen 2: 419-423. Brugmansia, a new genus of the Rafflesiaceae.

 

1827 - Observations sur le structure des poivres. Ann. Sc. Nat. 12: 216-224. Extract in French of the monograph of Piper (1826). 1827 — Bijdrage tot de kennis van het landschap Bantam, in het westelijk gedeelte van Java, etc. Cybele (Tijdschr. Bevordering Land- en Volkenkunde) VI e stuk: 1-36. Contributionto the knowledge of Bantam, West Java. Almost literatim reproduced under the same title in Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4, 1845: 1-36. 1827 - Over de staat der indigo-teelt. In: P. VAN GRIETHUIZEN, Over de staat der indigo-teelt. De Nederl. Hermes, Tijdschr. Koophandel, Zeevaart en Nijverheid 2, no 10: 40-42. Brief information and references on cultivationof indigo.

 

1827-1828 - Enumeratio plantarum Javae et insularum adjacentium minus cognitarum vel novarum ex herbariis Reinwardtii, Hasseltii, Kuhlii, Blumei, etc. Leiden. 2 vols. 278 pp. Description of some families ofAngiosperms and the Pteridophytes. Properly a continuation of the Bijdragen (1825-1827), although in more detail and with longer descriptions. Repr. Den Haag

 

1830, Amsterdam 1968. 1828 - Het Duizend-Gebergte (GoenongSeribu). In: G.H. NAOEL, Schetsen uit mijne Javaanscheportefeuille; Javaansche tafereelen: 69-75 (in L). Remarks on the landscape of the 'Thousand Hills', in the plain SW of Jakarta. Also a brief description of the limestone hills Kuripan, SW of Bogor, famous fortheir hotsprings, which yielded several plants not found anywhere else, amongst them a Cycas sp. 1828-1851-Flora Javae nec non insularum adjacentium. Brussels. 3 vols. Three sumptuous foliovolumes, with analyses, plates, and descriptions in greatdetail. The authorship is partly ascribed to his assistant Dr. J.B. FISCHER, who was his 'adjutore'. The preface is probably most interesting, but being not in sufficient command of the Latin language, I cannot evaluate it. For publication dates, see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 236. 23 Planches inedites were for sale in probably 1863 (see also C: VAN STEENIS, 1947).

 

1829 - Letter to the Governor-General. Algemeen Handelsblad of April 1st, no 26. Flora Malesiana 26 On the occasion of the appointment of Governor-General VAN DEN BOSCH; on the importance ofstimulating cultures for the general welfare, commerce, and the benefit of the common people. BLUME pleaded forthe gradualabandoningcq. restriction of the use ofopium. 1831 - Reistogte naar Buitenzorg, het Duizend-Cebergte, Koeripan en in de omstreken van Batavia, 1824; door een ambtenaar. Recensent (de Recensenten) XXIV, 2: 427—442, 467—471. This contribution is not written by BLUME himself, but by one of the civil servants accompanying him, A. ZIPPELIUS or A. LATOUR, on a trip to the hills W of Bogor. By BLUME himself also described in the entry of 1828, Het Duizend-Gebergte. Contains no scientific observations. 1831 - Ueber eirtige Ostindische, und besonders Javanische Melastomataceen. Flora 15 (2): 465-527. A thoroughstudy ofthe family Melastomataceaeinwhich BLUME described 12 new genera, all standing to the present day, mainly based on species described in the Bijdragen (1825-1827).

 

1831 - Over eenige Oost-Indische, byzonder Javaansche, Melastomataceae. In: H.C. VAN HALL (ed.), Bijdragen tot de Natuurkundige Wetenschappen 6: 211-268. The same as the preceding entry. 1831 - Eenige woorden over de redding van het Rijks Herbarium door Dr. J.B. Fischer. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode no 23, 10 June: 356-359 & no 24, 17 June: 374-377 (in L). Details on the transfer of the Rijksherbarium from Brussels to Hollandby Dr. J.B. FISCHER. 1831 - Over de Asiatische cholera, uit eigene waarnemingen en echte stukken. C.G. SULPKE, Amsterdam, viii + 203 pp. (In University Library at U). Historical account and personal experience with cholera in the Netherlands Indies, extensively documented; measures taken by the governmentto cope with this disastrous illness.

 

1832 - Vruchten mijner ondervinding in hetafweren en genezen der cholera. Amsterdam. 31 pp. (in L). A most interesting paper prescribing how to deal with patients suffering from cholera, in Java calledfebris endemica bataviae. Recipes for external and internal use. Prescribing the boiling of drinking-water. Paper printed in 1000 copies at the author's expense, distributed freely to boards of municipalities in the Netherlands. 1832 - Beschrijving van Calamus draco Willd., etc. In: H.C. VAN HALL (ed.), Bijdragen tot de NatuurkundigeWetenschappen 7: 115-129. Extensive Latin description of a rattan from S. Sumatra collected by his friend C.F.E. PRAETORIUS.

 

1832 - Uittreksel uit eenen brief van den Heer J.B. Spanogheaan den hoogleeraarC.L. Blume. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1832-1: 356-361. Notes on thesituationin Bima(Sumbawa), with biographical notes on SPANOGHE by BLUME. Plant list of Bima.

 

1834 -Observationes de genere Helicia Lour. Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. II, 1 (1) Bot.: 211-220. Review of the genus, with new species. Dedication 27 1834 - Eenige waarnemingenomtrent de Culilawan boom van Rumphius. Tijdschr. Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie 1: 45 -64, t. 2. Repr. in: WIEGMAN, Archiv Naturgeschichte 1 (1835) 116-126,and in: Jahrb.Pharm. Berlin 35 (1835) 9-29. On Cinnamomum described by RUMPHIUS. 1834 - Eenige opmerkingen over de natuurlijke rangschikking van Rohdea, Tupistra en Aspidistra, als mede de beschrijving eener nieuwesoort van dit laatste geslacht. Tijdschr. Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie 1: 67-85, pi. 3 & 4. Botanical relations between three genera, and description of a new species of Aspidistra.

 

1834 - De novis quibusdamplantarum familiis expositio et olimjam expositarum enumeratio. Tijdschr. Natuurlijke Geschiedenis en Physiologie 1: 131-162. Repr. in Ann. Sc. Nat. sr. II, 2 Bot.: 89-106. A preprint was issued in 1833, see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 2367. Description of a number of newly proposed families, Apostasiaceae, etc., with a few new species. 1835 -Neesia, genus plantarum javanicum repertum, descriptum et figura illustratum. Nova Acta Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. 17 (1): 73-84, pi. 6. A new genus of Bombacaceae named after TH.FR.L. NEES VON ESENBECK.

 

1835-1848 - Rumphia, sive commentationes botanicae imprimis de plantis Indiae orientalis, turn penitus incognitis turn quae in librisRheedii, Rumphii, Roxburghii, Wallichii,aliorum, recensentur. Leiden, Amsterdam. 4 vols. Folio. For publication dates, see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 238. Conditions for sale were mentionedin Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. II, 4 (1835) 318. JUNGHUHN mentions that part of the work was elaborated and illustrated by J. DECAISNE and the Latin was supervised by D.J. VEEGENS, a friend of BLUME. 1837 - Levensbyzonderheden van Franz Junghuhn. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1837-11: 277, footnote. Biographical notes on F. JUNGHUHN. 1837 - Levensbyzonderheden van Dr A. Fritze. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1837-11: 277, footnote. Biographical notes on A. FRITZE, Inspector of Physicians and benefactor of JUNGHUHN. 1837 - Naschrift op den brief van Junghuhnuit Djocjakarta. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1837-11: 278-280. Appendix to a letter of JUNGHUHN. 1838 - Revue des palmiers de I'archipel des Indes orientates. Bull. Sc. Phys. & Natur. en Neerlande no 9: 61-67. Repr. in Ann. Sc. Nat. s6r. II, 10 Bot.: 369-377. 1838 - Miquelia, genus novum plantarum javanicarum. Bull. Sc. Phys. & Natur. en Neerlande no 13: 93-95. Repr. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. II, 10 Bot.: 255-256. Flora Malesiana 28 Description ofa new genus ofIcacinaceae, named after MIQUEL, then director of the Rotterdam Botanical Garden. 1838 - (transl.) Advertisement for sustaining the edition of Flora Javae, Rumphia, etc. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1838-11: 322, 401. 1839 - Beschrijving der minerale bronnen, welke nabij Tjiratjas in de Residentie Krawang worden gevonden. Tijdschr. Ned.-Indie 2 (1): 451-455. Description of mineral wells near Tjiratjas in Krawang, E of Jakarta.

 

1843 - Levensbyzonderheden over Th.St. Raffles. De Indische Bij 1: 49, footnote. Praise of RAFFLES' humane government. 1843 - Engeland's staatkunde omtrent China. De Indische Bij 1: 61-77. To stimulate the necessity of increasing naval power in Netherlands-Indianwaters and extend commercial relations with Japan. In a footnote on p. 76 BLUME refers again to the necessity of regulating the trade in opium. 1843 - Toelichting aangaande de nasporingen op Borneo vanG. Miiller. De Indische Bij 1: 103-176. On the geography, anthropology, commercial situation etc. of W. Borneo, from correspondence with G. MULLER. In a footnote on p. 104 BLUME reveals the bad management of the Governor-General DAENDELS, and he praises RAFFLES for his humane, unselfish administration.

 

1843 - Bladvulling. De Indische Bij 1: 320. An occasional note on common social progress, whereby also the native people should prosper. Private propertyof land by non-natives is discouraged. Native rule should not be undermined. Adat should be maintained. 1843 -Over een Nederlandsch Gezantschap in Japan. De Indische Bij 1: 479-480. Importance of a Netherlands Embassy in Japan. 1843 - Over eenige Oost-Indische planten welke eene uitmuntende vezelstof opleveren, en Gedachten over het nut van dergelijke kulturen tot opbeuring van de buiten Java gelegene etablissementen. De Indische Bij 1: 481-509. On the importance of fibres, from ramie, cotton and Musa;

1843 -Over een Nederlandsch Gezantschap in Japan. De Indische Bij 1: 479-480. Importance of a Netherlands Embassy in Japan. 1843 - Over eenige Oost-Indische planten welke eene uitmuntende vezelstof opleveren, en Gedachten over het nut van dergelijke kulturen tot opbeuring van de buiten Java gelegene etablissementen. De Indische Bij 1: 481-509. On the importance of fibres, from ramie, cotton and Musa; tissues provided by BLUME were examined.

 

1844 - (with P.F. VON SIEBOLD) Ontwerp tot oprigting van de Koninklijke Nederlandsche Maatschappij tot Aanmoediging van den Tuinbouw. Jaarb. Ned. Mij. Aanmoed. Tuinbouw over 1844: iii-iv. Tentative rules for the newly erected society. Dedication 29 1844 -Over het nut der invoering van vreemde gewassen en de laatstepogingen om daardoor den tuinbouw hier te lande op te beuren. Jaarb. Ned. Mij. Aanmoed. Tuinbouw over 1844: 41-88. On the use of importing exotic plants for horticulture in the Netherlands. 1844 - Naamlijst van Oost-Indische en bepaaldelijk Javaansche gewassen, etc. Jaarb. Ned. Mij. Aanmoed. Tuinbouw over 1844: 88-90, t. 1-4 (col.). Unsigned, but attributed to BLUME.

 

1844 - Ueber das Lycopodium arboreum Jungh. Amtlicher Bericht uber die Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte Abt. 2, 22: 85-89. Identified as Dacrydium cf. elatum WALL, on type material shown to him by W.H. DE VRIESE. In Rumphia 3 (1849) 219, 221 BLUME later added sour remarks. 1844 -Ueber ein Surrogat des Chinesischen Thees. Amtlicher Bericht iiber die Versammlung Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte Abt. 2, 22: 90-92. Made public in a session of the Society at Bremen, 23 Sept.

 

1844. As Prof. G.J. MULDER had shown the alkaloid theine is the same as caffeine, BLUME suggested that tea could be made from dried leaves of coffee. 1845 - De Koffij-thee. Astrea, Tydschr. van Schoone Kunsten, Wetenschap en Letteren 1: 285. Same as preceding.

 

1845 -Minerale wateren van Tjipannasen Tjiradjas. Opmerkingen nopens debruikbaarheidvan dien te Tjipannas (Preanger Reg.), beschrijving en scheikundig onderzoek van dien te Tjiradjas (Krawang). Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 1/2: 162-166. Reprint of an article published in the Bataviaasche Courant of 15 Sept. 1821. 1845 - Gedachten op eene reis door het zuidoostelijk gedeelteder Residentie Bantam. Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4: 1-36. Account of his experience on a trip through SE. Bantam in W. Java. Account of theBadui people. Reprint of an article published in 1822.

 

1845 - Fragment uit een Dagboek gehouden op eene reis over Java. Bestijging van den berg Tjerimai, gewoonlijk genoemd Tjerme, in de Residentie Cheribon. Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4: 102-116. Report on an exploration of Mt Tjeremai, above Cheribon. Reprint of an article published in 1825. 1845 -Over inlandsche middelen tegen diarrhoe. Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4: 116. Indigenous recipes against diarrhoea. Copied from the paper published in 1825.

 

1845 - De patma van Noesa Kambangan. Indisch Magazijn, Tweede Twaalftal, no 3/4: 179-194 (in L). Reprint of an article publishedin theBataviaascheCourant of9 & 23 March 1825, in which he described his finding ofRafflesia in Nusa Kambangan I. (S. Central Java) and claimed this to be the largest flower, superseding Nelumbium. Flora Malesiana 30

 

1846 - An article in the 'Handelsblad'. In this article BLUME advised to hold expositions of colonial products from the East and West Indies in the Netherlands from time to time. 1849-1856- Museum botanicum Lugduno-Batavum sive stirpium exoticarum, novarum vel minus cognitarum ex vivis aut siccis brevis expositio et descriptio. Leiden. 2 vols. Appeared in dated parts each of 16 pp. In all, I: 396 pp., 60 fig.; II: 256 pp., 58 fig. The second volume was not finished and had no index. For publication dates, see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 240. A most important work, being a scientific catalogue of the Rijksherbarium collections, hence containing descriptions and treatments of plants from all over the world. An Index to volume 2 was prepared by C.G.G.J, VAN STEENIS & CHEW WEE LEK at the Rijksherbarium in 1974 (see Appendix C). 1850 -Antwoord aan den Heer W.H. De Vriese. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1850-11: 99-109, 114-123. Repr. 34 pp. in L. BLUME defends his criticism on the identity ofLycopodium arboreum and the reduction of Pinus merkusii, and the right of the Rijksherbarium to be the depositoryof collectionsmade by civil servants. 1850 - Opheldering van de inlichtingen van den Heer Fr. Junghuhn. Alg. Konst- en Letterbode 1850-11: 258-261, 274-279. Repr. 19 pp. in L. On JUNGHUHN'S collection and the rightofthe Rijksherbarium as the proper public depository of botanical collections.

 

1852 - Copy of a letter to J.G. BAUD, Minister of the Colonies, dated 14 March 1840, 'nopens debereiding van thee uitkoffie-bladeren, met aanbeveling tot het nemen van proeven in het groot op Java zelf.' Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Indie 3: 122-126. Proposal to prepare tea from coffee leaves and suggesting experiments with this on a large scale in Java. There are two other entries on the subject in 1844 & 1845; see also Astrea 1 (1851) 256. 1855 - Melanges botaniques. 8°. No 1, 1 Aug.

 

1855: 1-8; no 2, 1 Sept. 1855: 9-12. Facsimile in Taxon 35 (1986) 274-285. Until June 1985 assumed not to have been published; see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 241. The new names etc. in the Melanges were validated by WALPERS in his Annales 4 (1857) 642-644 and a rather large extract was published in Flora 41 (1858) 254-256. L. VOGELENZANG, librarian of the Rijksherbarium, found in VESQUE'S bibliography of J. DECAISNE (C: 1883)that the latter had a copy of the Melanges in his library, now incorporated in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris. H. HEINE located another copy in the Bibliotheque Central of the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle at Paris which had belonged to the library ofA.TH. BRONGNIART. The original copy mentionedinFlora is still not located. It was probably dedicated to NEES VON ESENBECK. The pamphlet was not for sale, but it was effectively published and at least two copies exist. BothParis copies were autographed to BLUME'S close friends. He may have sent more copies to other botanists with whom he was befriended.Obviously BLUME published it at his own expense and the reason for this is unknown. He could have published it in his Museum Botanicum Lugdunum-Batavum. The first numero of the Melanges contains a discussion on paper-making by the Sino- Dedication 31 Japanese and three species are described of Broussonetia (2 new). Furthermore there is a section 'synonymie de quelques plantes peu connues', concerning species and genera of Cunoniaceae, Saxifragaceae, Rosaceae, Guttiferae (Cratoxylon), Dipterocarpaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae, and Nepenthes. Numero 2 contains Chrysobalanaceae and Rosaceae (Pygeum) (B: VAN STEENIS, 1986).

 

1858 - Bijdrage tot de kennis der Oost-Indische Orchideen en het maaksel (de organisatie) van hare bevruchtingswerktuigen. Versl. & Meded. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Amsterdam 7: 100-115, 2 pi. Interpretation of the orchidaceous flower, with special regard to Apostasiaceae. 1858(—1859) - Flora Javae et insularum adjacentium. Nova Series. Leiden, pp. 8 + 6+162, 66 col. pi. Also edited with a French title, see below. A sumptuous work in which BLUME summarized his large knowledge on orchids in which he had great insight since he wrote the Bijdragen (1825-1827).

 

1858(— 1859) -Collection des Orchideeslesplus remarquables de I'Archipel Indienet du Japon. The French-titled version of the Flora Javae, Nova Series. For publication dates, see STAFLEU & COWAN, Taxonomic literature, ed. 2, 1 (1976) 240. 1859 - (with A.H. VAN DER BOON MESCH) Geschikte materialen uit de Overzeesche bezittingen voor het vervaardigen van papier. Report about useful materials from overseas territories suitable to manufacture paper.

 

1859 - Vanda suaveolens Bl. Ann. Hort. Bot. ou Fl. Jard. Pays-Bas 2: 1-2, 1 col. pi.

 

1859 - Over eenigeOost-Indische houtsoorten in verband met de verwoestingen door den paalworm of andere schelpdieren hier te lande en elders aangerigt. Versl. & Meded. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. 9: 25-49. Repr. 25 pp. in L. A scholarly review of timbers resistant against teredo and other molluscs, in which BLUME summarized experience onwardsof RUMPHIUS and collected data from all kinds of sources, indicating valuable species to be used in sea harbours.

 

1860 - De houtteelt verbonden met den landbouw. Tijdschr. Ned. Mij. ter Bevordering van de Nijverheid 23: 1-29. Cultivation of timber species in relation to agriculture. 1861 - Monographie des Anoectochilus, Goodyera et genres voisins, les plus remarquables de I'archipel Indien et du Japon. Belg. Hort. 11: 369-378, 1 pi. Extract from Flora Javae, Nova Series (1858-1859).

 

1863 -Flora Javae. Planches inedites. 23 coloured folio plates of Javanese plants with names and analyses. These were probably intended for further instalments of the Flora Javae, but remained without text. On the back of some plates an advertisement was printed by a booksellers firm in Leiden.

All Right Reserved, 2019, Bioherby  COPYRIGHT _ Botanic Research Bioherby _ 2019

All Right Reserved, 2019, Bioherby  COPYRIGHT _ Botanic Research Bioherby _ 2019

Read more: Gynostemma - The Forgotten Plant Name - Blume CL

 

Carl Ludwig Blume,

 

Indexed, Documented:

Species of Gynostemma; Subspecies Pedata in 1819 - 1826.

Gynostemma Pedata / G. Blume Specimen; #202750 L0588321

 

Date of Specimen:   1819 / 1826

Botanist: Carl Ludwig Blume (1429)

 

Location of Sample : Java.

Conclusion: Registration in Year 1825, First Registered & Indexed Specimen of GYNOSTEMMA PENTAPHYLLUM = GYNOSTEMMA BLUME.

All Right Reserved, 2019, Bioherby  COPYRIGHT _ Botanic Research Bioherby _ 2019

All Right Reserved, 2019, Bioherby  COPYRIGHT _ Botanic Research Bioherby _ 2019